| 16th century A.D.
|| 15 x 23 cm
This Quran manuscript was part of the library of Sultan Bāyazīd II (Ottoman Turkish: Beyazıt-i s̠ānī), the eldest son and successor of Sultan Muḥammad II al-Fātiḥ (Ottoman Turkish: Fâtih Sultan Meḥmed-i s̠ānī, or Mehmed the Conqueror), ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 886 to 918 (1481 to 1512 A.D.) It was beautifully transcribed by Muṣṭafa bin Khawājah ‘Alī, in Istanbul in 911 (1506 A.D.)
The titles of each sūrāh (chapter), the numbering of each the juz’ (one thirtieth of the Quran) and signs of each a’shār (one tenth of the Quran) and ḥizb (stage) are visible in the margins. They are transcribed in white ink, in Thuluth script, inside golden octagrams surrounded by floral ornaments. The first two pages are gold-plated and decorated with plant and floral motifs, connected with golden branches on a blue and golden background. This Quran manuscript was transcribed inside golden frames, with golden ink also used for the floral designs separating the verses.
According to different sources, the manuscript used for the transcription of this Quran is the khaṭṭ al-manṣūb (“the well-proportioned script”), a systematic method of writing based on geometry. Its calligraphic form is uniquely powerful as we can see with the design of the median “ك” (kāf) and the “و” (wāw) letters, the symmetry of the long horizontal lines, the use of “ـے” (al-yā al-mardūdah, or the returned yā, due to its tail pointing to the right), and the different pen nibs that are approximately one millimeter large.