For all such a various array of events in the Middle East, there is one title: a scramble toward forging a new regional system after two competing models. One model seeks a regional system that rests on sovereign nation-states, whereas the other envisions a hybrid regional system composed of weaker states linked with sub-state actors performing state functions in the regional balance of power. While Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy falls into the former model, Iran’s foreign policy is informed by the latter. Each of them is driven by specific perceptions and structural imperatives to adopt their respective model.
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