Research Papers


Number:
Author: Umer Karim
Instability is, in a word, the hallmark of Pakistani politics. Imran Khan’s government proved no exception. It collapsed owing to his unorthodox and populist views on foreign policy and his differences with the military leadership. Khan’s departure paved the way for the return to dynastic politics in Pakistan, traditionally dominated by the Sharifs and Bhuttos. The Sharifs and Bhuttos have traditionally been bitter enemies but have now formed a joint political front to counter Imran Khan’s anti-status quo politics. They may have succeeded in bringing down Khan’s government but now have to deal with an economy on the brink of collapse and a politically res
Read more
Number:
Author: Edited by Mohamed Al-Sbitli
This publication is available in Arabic only. 
Read more
Number:
Author: Mohamed Al-Sbitli
This publication is available in Arabic only. 
Read more
Number:
Author: Muhammad Zulfikar Rakhmat
When a former furniture store owner and mayor of the small city of Surakarta, Joko “Jokowi” Widodo, was elected as Indonesia’s seventh president in 2014, his limited experience in foreign affairs left many observers thinking his ‘presidency would see few significant breakthroughs in the country’s foreign policy.  However, despite these presumptions, Jokowi has succeeded in strengthening Indonesia’s relationship with various Middle Eastern partners, including Saudi Arabia. As a result, over the past decade, ties between Jakarta and Riyadh have solidified and become more multifaceted, with the scope of cooperation expanding from the diploma
Read more
Number:
Author: Hamad Sulaiman Othman Alturki
This publication is available in Arabic only.
Read more
Number:
Author: Rizwan Rafi Togoo
The commentary investigates recent political developments in Malaysia and their impact on bilateral relations between Saudi Arabia and Malaysia, arguing that as a result of the recent change in power structures in Malaysia, the country will shift to a non-confrontational foreign policy based on economic pragmatism. Given Malaysia’s recent political developments, the commentary highlights the prospects for enhanced Saudi-Malaysian relations following a brief period of strained relations under the Mahathir Mohammed-led administration.
Read more
Number:
Author: John P. Burns
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leads and manages governance in China, a rising geopolitical and economic superpower. The party is organized territorially throughout the country, including in local jurisdictions like the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. However, because of Hong Kong’s recent past as a British colony, the party operates differently there than on the mainland. Understanding these differences sheds light on the operation of the CCP as the leading institution in the world’s largest country. The paper drills down into the history, organization, and functions of the local party in Hong Kong and its relationship to the central party and government
Read more
Number:
Author: Edited by Mohamed Al-Sbitli
This publication is available in Arabic only. 
Read more
Number: 64
Author: Mohammed Alrmizan
The study explores the evolution of Turkish foreign policy toward Central Asia over the past three decades. It shows how Avrasyacılık (Eurasianism) and pan-Turkism initially informed Turkish state approaches to the region following the independence of the Central Asian Republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan in the early 1990s. In the era of Erdoğan, Turkey first adopted pragmatism in the 2000s, but later underwent a course-correction in the 2010s that emphasized the development of political and military relations. As Turkey is not alone in Central Asia, the study also considers how its evolving footprint in the region was impacted by ext
Read more
Number:
Author: Hifa Almutawa
Since 2020, the conflict in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region has been one of the most terrifying  and challenging the Horn of Africa has confronted in decades. It has been more than a year since  Ethiopia’s federal government, under the direction of the prime minister, Abiy Ahmed, launched  a military campaign against the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) in Tigray. Moreover,  the two sides appear to have dug in, taking Ethiopia to the brink of collapse. Since late 2020, many  thousands of people have died, while others have been internally displaced or fled across the border  into neighboring Sudan. The United Nations Sec
Read more